使用prometheus监控k8s集群

1. Prometheus 简介

以下是网上看到的简介:

Prometheus 是一套开源的系统监控报警框架。它启发于 Google 的 borgmon 监控系统,由工作在 SoundCloud 的 google 前员工在 2012 年创建,作为社区开源项目进行开发,并于 2015 年正式发布。2016 年,Prometheus 正式加入 Cloud Native Computing Foundation,成为受欢迎度仅次于 Kubernetes 的项目。

作为新一代的监控框架,Prometheus 具有以下特点:

  • 强大的多维度数据模型:
  • 时间序列数据通过 metric 名和键值对来区分。
  • 所有的 metrics 都可以设置任意的多维标签。
  • 数据模型更随意,不需要刻意设置为以点分隔的字符串。
  • 可以对数据模型进行聚合,切割和切片操作。
  • 支持双精度浮点类型,标签可以设为全 unicode。
  • 灵活而强大的查询语句(PromQL):在同一个查询语句,可以对多个 metrics 进行乘法、加法、连接、取分数位等操作。
  • 易于管理: Prometheus server 是一个单独的二进制文件,可直接在本地工作,不依赖于分布式存储。
  • 高效:平均每个采样点仅占 3.5 bytes,且一个 Prometheus server 可以处理数百万的 metrics。
  • 使用 pull 模式采集时间序列数据,这样不仅有利于本机测试而且可以避免有问题的服务器推送坏的 metrics。
  • 可以采用 push gateway 的方式把时间序列数据推送至 Prometheus server 端。
  • 可以通过服务发现或者静态配置去获取监控的 targets。
  • 有多种可视化图形界面。
  • 易于伸缩。
    需要指出的是,由于数据采集可能会有丢失,所以 Prometheus 不适用对采集数据要 100% 准确的情形。但如果用于记录时间序列数据,Prometheus 具有很大的查询优势,此外,Prometheus 适用于微服务的体系架构。

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在kubernetes 上部署ceph Rook测试

1. 部署rook

下载:

mkdir rook
cd rook/

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/rook/rook/release-1.0/cluster/examples/kubernetes/ceph/common.yaml
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/rook/rook/release-1.0/cluster/examples/kubernetes/ceph/cluster.yaml
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/rook/rook/release-1.0/cluster/examples/kubernetes/ceph/operator.yaml

修改配置:

vim cluster.yaml
apiVersion: ceph.rook.io/v1
kind: CephCluster
metadata:
  name: rook-ceph
  namespace: rook-ceph
spec:
  cephVersion:
    image: ceph/ceph:v13 #ceph版本
    allowUnsupported: false
  dataDirHostPath: /data/ceph/rook  #存储的目录
  mon:
    count: 3
    allowMultiplePerNode: false
  dashboard:
    enabled: true
  network:
    hostNetwork: false
  rbdMirroring:
    workers: 0
  annotations:
  resources:
    useAllNodes: true
    useAllDevices: true
    deviceFilter:
    location:
    config:
    directories:
    - path: /data/ceph/rook

部署:

kubectl create -f common.yaml
kubectl create -f operator.yaml
kubectl create -f cluster.yaml

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coredns解析结果异常的问题

我发现k8s内coredns的解析结果有点问题。经常解析不出来。

/ # nslookup kubernetes-dashboard.kube-system.svc.cluster.local
Server:         10.253.255.10
Address:        10.253.255.10:53

Non-authoritative answer:

*** Can't find kubernetes-dashboard.kube-system.svc.cluster.local: No answer

/ # nslookup kubernetes-dashboard.kube-system.svc.cluster.local
Server:         10.253.255.10
Address:        10.253.255.10:53

Name:   kubernetes-dashboard.kube-system.svc.cluster.local
Address: 10.253.255.40

*** Can't find kubernetes-dashboard.kube-system.svc.cluster.local: No answer

/ # nslookup kubernetes-dashboard.kube-system.svc.cluster.local
Server:         10.253.255.10
Address:        10.253.255.10:53

Name:   kubernetes-dashboard.kube-system.svc.cluster.local
Address: 10.253.255.40

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kubernetes 日常使用及操作测试

[toc]
前文已经安装好了一套kubernetes 1.10,下面我们来进行日常使用测试

1. 创建部署及服务

编辑一个yaml文件:

vim nginx.yaml 
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx-router
  namespace: test
spec:
  replicas: 2
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: nginx-router
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: nginx-router
        image: 172.21.248.242/base/nginx
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80

---
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: nginx-router
  namespace: test
spec:
  selector:
    app: nginx-router
  ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 80
      targetPort: 80

---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: nginx-router-ingress
  namespace: test
  annotations:
    kubernetes.io/ingress.class: traefik
spec:
  rules:
  - host: "nginx.k8s.dev.huilog.com"
    http:
      paths:
      - backend:
          serviceName: nginx-router
          servicePort: 80

# 创建部署及服务:
[root@bs-ops-test-docker-dev-01 dev]# kubectl create -f nginx.yaml 
deployment.extensions "nginx-router" created
service "nginx-router" created
ingress.extensions "nginx-router-ingress" created
[root@bs-ops-test-docker-dev-01 dev]#

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kubernetes V1.10集群安装及配置

[toc]

1. k8s集群系统规划

1.1. kubernetes 1.10的依赖

k8s V1.10对一些相关的软件包,如etcd,docker并不是全版本支持或全版本测试,建议的版本如下:
– docker: 1.11.2 to 1.13.1 and 17.03.x
– etcd: 3.1.12
– 全部信息如下:

参考:External Dependencies
* The supported etcd server version is 3.1.12, as compared to 3.0.17 in v1.9 (#60988)
* The validated docker versions are the same as for v1.9: 1.11.2 to 1.13.1 and 17.03.x (ref)
* The Go version is go1.9.3, as compared to go1.9.2 in v1.9. (#59012)
* The minimum supported go is the same as for v1.9: go1.9.1. (#55301)
* CNI is the same as v1.9: v0.6.0 (#51250)
* CSI is updated to 0.2.0 as compared to 0.1.0 in v1.9. (#60736)
* The dashboard add-on has been updated to v1.8.3, as compared to 1.8.0 in v1.9. (#57326)
* Heapster has is the same as v1.9: v1.5.0. It will be upgraded in v1.11. (ref)
* Cluster Autoscaler has been updated to v1.2.0. (#60842, @mwielgus)
* Updates kube-dns to v1.14.8 (#57918, @rramkumar1)
* Influxdb is unchanged from v1.9: v1.3.3 (#53319)
* Grafana is unchanged from v1.9: v4.4.3 (#53319)
* CAdvisor is v0.29.1 (#60867)
* fluentd-gcp-scaler is v0.3.0 (#61269)
* Updated fluentd in fluentd-es-image to fluentd v1.1.0 (#58525, @monotek)
* fluentd-elasticsearch is v2.0.4 (#58525)
* Updated fluentd-gcp to v3.0.0. (#60722)
* Ingress glbc is v1.0.0 (#61302)
* OIDC authentication is coreos/go-oidc v2 (#58544)
* Updated fluentd-gcp updated to v2.0.11. (#56927, @x13n)
* Calico has been updated to v2.6.7 (#59130, @caseydavenport)

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在K8S 的ingress上配置HTTP认证的方法

在K8S 的ingress上配置HTTP认证的方法如下:

1 . 使用htpasswd创建一个auth文件:

htpasswd -c ./auth myusername
cat auth
myusername:$apr1$78Jyn/1K$ERHKVRPPlzAX8eBtLuvRZ0

2. 创建一个K8S的secret:

kubectl create secret generic mysecret --from-file auth --namespace=monitoring 
kubectl --namespace=monitoring get secret mysecret 
NAME      TYPE    DATA    AGE 
mysecret Opaque   1      106d

3. 通过以下参数将创建的secret与ingress关联起来:

  • ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-type: "basic"
  • ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-secret: "mysecret"
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
 name: prometheus-dashboard
 namespace: monitoring
 annotations:
   kubernetes.io/ingress.class: traefik
   ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-type: "basic"
   ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-secret: "mysecret"
spec:
 rules:
 - host: dashboard.prometheus.example.com
   http:
     paths:
     - backend:
         serviceName: prometheus
         servicePort: 9090

最后创建就可以了:

kubectl create -f prometheus-ingress.yaml -n monitoring

参考:

https://docs.traefik.io/user-guide/kubernetes/

https://docs.traefik.io/configuration/backends/kubernetes/