作者: hosyp    发表于:2006-02-15 21:24:28

LVS是中国人发起的项目,真是意外呀!大家可以看http://www.douzhe.com/linuxtips/1665.html

我是从最初的HA(高可用性)开始的,别人的例子是用VMWARE,可以做试验但不能实际应用,我又没有光纤卡的Share Storage,于是就选用ISCSI,成功后又发现ISCSI+EXT3不能用于LVS,倒最后发现GFS可用,我最终成功配成可实际应用的LVS,前 后断断续续花了四个月,走了很多弯路。我花了三天时间写下这篇文章,希望对大家有用。

这里要感谢linuxfans.org、linuxsir.com、chinaunix.com以及其它很多网站,很多资料都是从他们的论坛上找到的。参考文档及下载点
a.http://www.gyrate.org/misc/gfs.txt
b.http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/enterprise/RHEL-3-Manual/cluster-suite/index.html
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/csgfs/admin-guide/index.html
c.ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/updates/enterprise/3ES/en/RHGFS/SRPMS
d.http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/caoslinux/centos/3.1/contrib/i386/RPMS/

LVS结构图:
eth0=10.3.1.101
eth0:1=10.3.1.254
Load Balance
Router
eth1=192.168.1.71
eth1:1=192.168.1.1
| |
| |
Real1 Real2
eth0=192.168.1.68 eth0=192.168.1.67
(eth0 gateway=192.168.1.1)
eth1=192.168.0.1—eth1=192.168.0.2
(双机互联线)
|
|
GFS
ISCSI
Share storage
eth0=192.168.1.124

1.Setup ISCSI Server
Server: PIII 1.4,512M, Dell 1650,Redhat 9,IP=192.168.1.124
从http://iscsitarget.sourceforge.net/下载ISCSI TARGET的Source code
(http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=108475&package_id=117141)
我选了iscsitarget-0.3.8.tar.gz,要求kernel 2.4.29
从kernel.org下载kernel 2.4.29,解开编译重启后编译安装iscsitarget-0.3.8:
#make KERNELSRC=/usr/src/linux-2.4.29
#make KERNELSRC=/usr/src/linux-2.4.29 install
#cp ietd.conf /etc
#vi /etc/ietd.conf

# Example iscsi target configuration
#
# Everything until the first target definition belongs
# to the global configuration.
# Right now this is only the user configuration used
# during discovery sessions:
# Users, who can access this target
# (no users means anyone can access the target)
User iscsiuser 1234567890abc
Target iqn.2005-04.com.my:storage.disk2.sys1.iraw1
User iscsiuser 1234567890abc
Lun 0 /dev/sda5 fileio
Alias iraw1
Target iqn.2005-04.com.my:storage.disk2.sys1.iraw2
User iscsiuser 1234567890abc
Lun 1 /dev/sda6 fileio
Alias iraw2
Target iqn.2005-04.com.my:storage.disk2.sys2.idisk
User iscsiuser 1234567890abc
Lun 2 /dev/sda3 fileio
Alias idisk
Target iqn.2005-04.com.my:storage.disk2.sys2.icca
User iscsiuser 1234567890abc
Lun 3 /dev/sda7 fileio
Alias icca

说明:password 长度必须不小于12个字符, Alias是别名, 不知为何这个别名在Client端显示不出来.
分区:我只有一个SCSI盘,所以:

/dev/sda3: Share storage,容量越大越好
/dev/sda5: raw1, 建Cluster要的rawdevice, 我给了900M
/dev/sda6: raw2, 建Cluster要的rawdevice, 我给了900M
/dev/sda7: cca, 建GFS要的,我给了64M
(/dev/sda4是Extended分区,在其中建了sda5,6,7)

#Reboot,用service iscsi-target start启ISCSI server(我觉得比建议的好,可以
用service iscsi-target status看状态)
2.Setup ISCSI Client(on two real server)
Server: PIII 1.4,512M, Dell 1650,Redhat AS3U4(用AS3U5更好),2.4.21-27.EL
#vi /etc/iscsi.conf

DiscoveryAddress=192.168.1.124
OutgoingUsername=iscsiuser
OutgoingPassword=1234567890abc
Username=iscsiuser
Password=1234567890abc
LoginTimeout=15
IncomingUsername=iscsiuser
IncomingPassword=1234567890abc
SendAsyncTest=yes

#service iscsi restart
#iscsi-ls -l
…, 精简如下:
/dev/sdb:iraw2
/dev/sdc:iraw1
/dev/sdd:idisk
/dev/sde:icca
注意: 在real server中ISCSI device的顺序很重要,两个real server中一定要一样,如不一样
就改ISCSI Server中的设置,多试几次
3.Install Redhat Cluster suite
先下载Cluster Suite的ISO, AS3的我是从ChinaUnix.net找到的下载点, 安装clumanager和
redhat-config-cluster。没有Cluster Suite的ISO也没关系,从
ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/updates/enterprise/3ES/en/RHCS/SRPMS/下载
clumanager-1.2.xx.src.rpm,redhat-config-cluster-1.0.x.src.rpm,编译后安装,应该更好:
#rpm -Uvh clumanager-1.2.26.1-1.src.rpm
#rpmbuild -bs /usr/src/redhat/SPECS/clumanager.spec
#rpmbuild –rebuild –target i686 /usr/src/redhat/SRPMS/clumanager-1.2.26.1-1.src.rpm
还有redhat-config-cluster-1.0.x.src.rpm,也装好
4.Setup Cluster as HA module
详细步骤我就不写了,网上有很多文章,我也是看了别人的文章学会的,不过人家是用VMWARE,
而我是用真的机子+ISCSI,raw device就是/dev/sdb,/dev/sdc, 然后就
mount /dev/sdd /u01, mkfs.ext3 /u01 ……
设好后会发现ISCSI有问题:同时只能有一个Client联接写盘,如果
两个Client同时联ISCSI的Share Storge,一个Client写,另一个Client是看不到的,而且此时文
件系统已经破坏了,Client重联ISCSI时会发现文件是坏的,用fsck也修复不了。
ISCSI真的是鸡肋吗?
NO!从GOOGLE上我终于查到ISCSI只有用Cluster File System才能真正用于Share Storage!
而Redhat买下的GFS就是一个!
5.Setup GFS on ISCSI
GFS只有Fedora Core4才自带了,而GFS又一定要用到Cluster Suite产生的/etc/cluster.xml文件,
我没见FC4有Cluster Suite,真不知Redhat给FC4带GFS干嘛,馋人吗?
好,闲话少说,下载:c处的GFS-6.0.2.20-2.src.rpm, 按a处的gfs.txt编译安装,不过关于
cluster.ccs,fence.ccs,nodes.ccs的设置没说,看b的文档,我总算弄出来了,都存在
/root/cluster下,存在别的地方也行,不过我不知道有没有错,我没有光纤卡,文档又没讲ISCSI
的例子,不过GFS能启动的。
#cat cluster.ccs

cluster {
name = "Cluster_1"
lock_gulm {
servers = ["cluster1", "cluster2"]
heartbeat_rate = 0.9
allowed_misses = 10
}
}

注:name就是Cluster Suite设置的Cluster name, servers就是Cluster member的Hostname,别忘
了加进/etc/hosts;allowed_misses我开始设为1,结果跑二天GFS就会死掉,改为10就没死过了。
#cat fence.ccs

fence_devices{
admin {
agent = "fence_manual"
}
}

#cat nodes.ccs

nodes {
cluster1 {
ip_interfaces {
hsi0 = "192.168.0.1"
}
fence {
human {
admin {
ipaddr = "192.168.0.1"
}
}
}
}
cluster2 {
ip_interfaces {
hsi0 = "192.168.0.2"
}
fence {
human {
admin {
ipaddr = "192.168.0.2"
}
}
}
}
}

注:ip就是心跳线的ip
这三个文件建在/root/cluster下,先建立Cluster Configuration System:
a.#vi /etc/gfs/pool0.cfg
poolname pool0
minor 1 subpools 1
subpool 0 8 1 gfs_data
pooldevice 0 0 /dev/sde1
b.#pool_assemble -a pool0
c.#ccs_tool create /root/cluster /dev/pool/pool0
d.#vi /etc/sysconfig/gfs
CCS_ARCHIVE="/dev/pool/pool0"

再Creating a Pool Volume,就是我们要的共享磁盘啦,
a.#vi /etc/gfs/pool1.cfg
poolname pool1
minor 2 subpools 1
subpool 0 128 1 gfs_data
pooldevice 0 0 /dev/sdd1
b.#pool_assemble -a pool1
c.#gfs_mkfs -p lock_gulm -t Cluster_1:gfs1 -j 8 /dev/pool/pool1
d.#mount -t gfs -o noatime /dev/pool/pool1 /u01
下面是个GFS的启动脚本,注意real1和real2必须同时启动lock_gulmd进程,第一台lock_gulmd
会成为Server并等Client的lock_gulmd,几十秒后没有响应会fail,GFS启动失败。Redhat建议
GFS盘不要写进/etc/fstab。
#cat gfstart.sh

#!/bin/sh
depmod -a
modprobe pool
modprobe lock_gulm
modprobe gfs
sleep 5
service iscsi start
sleep 20
service rawdevices restart
pool_assemble -a pool0
pool_assemble -a pool1
service ccsd start
service lock_gulmd start
mount -t gfs /dev/pool/pool1 /s02 -o noatime
service gfs status

6. Setup Linux LVS

LVS是章文嵩博士发起和领导的优秀的集群解决方案,许多商业的集群产品,比如RedHat的Piranha,Turbolinux公司的Turbo Cluster等,都是基于LVS的核心代码的。

我的系统是Redhat AS3U4,就用Piranha了。从rhel-3-u5-rhcs-i386.iso安装piranha-0.7.10-2.i386.rpm, ipvsadm-1.21-9.ipvs108.i386.rpm (http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/caoslinux/centos/3.1/contrib/i386/RPMS/) 装完后service httpd start & service piranha-gui start,就可以从http://xx.xx.xx.xx:3636管理或设置了,当然了,手工改/etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs.cf也 一样。

#cat /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs.cf

serial_no = 80
primary = 10.3.1.101
service = lvs
rsh_command = ssh
backup_active = 0
backup = 0.0.0.0
heartbeat = 1
heartbeat_port = 1050
keepalive = 6
deadtime = 18
network = nat
nat_router = 192.168.1.1 eth1:1
nat_nmask = 255.255.255.0
reservation_conflict_action = preempt
debug_level = NONE
virtual lvs1 {
active = 1
address = 10.3.1.254 eth0:1
vip_nmask = 255.255.255.0
fwmark = 100
port = 80
persistent = 60
pmask = 255.255.255.255
send = "GET / HTTP/1.0rnrn"
expect = "HTTP"
load_monitor = ruptime
scheduler = wlc
protocol = tcp
timeout = 6
reentry = 15
quiesce_server = 1
server Real1 {
address = 192.168.1.68
active = 1
weight = 1
}
server Real2 {
address = 192.168.1.67
active = 1
weight = 1
}
}
virtual lvs2 {
active = 1
address = 10.3.1.254 eth0:1
vip_nmask = 255.255.255.0
port = 21
send = "n"
use_regex = 0
load_monitor = ruptime
scheduler = wlc
protocol = tcp
timeout = 6
reentry = 15
quiesce_server = 0
server ftp1 {
address = 192.168.1.68
active = 1
weight = 1
}
server ftp2 {
address = 192.168.1.67
active = 1
weight = 1
}
}

设置完后service pulse start, 别忘了把相关的client加进/etc/hosts
#iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d 10.3.1.254/32 –dport 80 -j MARK –set-mark 100
#iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d 10.3.1.254/32 –dport 443 -j MARK –set-mark 100
#iptables -A POSTROUTING -t nat -p tcp -s 10.3.1.0/24 –sport 20 -j MASQUERADE
运行以上三行命令并存入/etc/rc.d/rc.local,用ipvsadm看状态:
#ipvsadm

IP Virtual Server version 1.0.8 (size=65536)
Prot LocalAddress:Port Scheduler Flags
-> RemoteAddress:Port Forward Weight ActiveConn InActConn
TCP 10.3.1.254:ftp wlc
-> cluster2:ftp Masq 1 0 0
-> cluster1:ftp Masq 1 0 0
FWM 100 wlc persistent 60
-> cluster1:0 Masq 1 0 0
-> cluster2:0 Masq 1 0 0

注意:a.Firewall Mark可以不要,我反正是加了,文档说有https的话加上,值我选了100,
b.Virtual IP别加进/etc/hosts,我上过当,80端口时有时无的,
c.eth0:1,eth1:1是piranha产生的,别自己手工设置,我干过这画蛇添足的事,网上有
些帖子没说清,最后是看Redhat的文档才弄清楚的。
d.The LVS router can monitor the load on the various real servers by using
either rup or ruptime. If you select rup from the drop-down menu, each real
server must run the rstatd service. If you select ruptime, each real server
must run the rwhod service.Redhat的原话,就是如选rup的监控模式real server上
都要运行rstatd进程,如选ruptime就要运行rwhod进程。
e.Real Server同Router相联的网卡的Gateway必须是Router的那块网卡的VIP,举本例:
Router的eth1同两个real server的eth0相联,如VIP eth1:1=192.168.1.1,则real
server 的eth0的Gateway=192.168.1.1

echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

7.Setup TOMCAT5.59+JDK1.5(用Redhat自带的Apache)
a.#tar xzvf jakarta-tomcat-5.5.9.tar.gz
#mv jakarta-tomcat-5.5.9 /usr/local
#ln -s /usr/local/jakarta-tomcat-5.5.9 /usr/local/tomcat
b.#jdk-1_5_0_04-linux-i586.bin
#mv jdk1.5.0_4 /usr/java
#ln -s /usr/java/jdk1.5.0_4 /usr/java/jdk
c.#vi /etc/profile.d/tomcat.sh
export CATALINA_HOME=/usr/local/tomcat
export TOMCAT_HOME=/usr/local/tomcat
d.#vi /etc/profile.d/jdk.sh

if ! echo ${PATH} | grep "/usr/java/jdk/bin" ; then
JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk
export JAVA_HOME
export PATH=/usr/java/jdk/bin:${PATH}
export CLASSPATH=$JAVA_HOME/lib
fi

e.#chmod 755 /etc/profile.d/*.sh
f.重新用root登录,让tomcat.sh和jdk.sh起作用,
#tar xzvf jakarta-tomcat-connectors-jk2-src-current.tar.gz
#cd jakarta-tomcat-connectors-jk2-2.0.4-src/jk/native2/
#./configure –with-apxs2=/usr/sbin/apxs –with-jni –with-apr-lib=/usr/lib
#make
#libtool –finish /usr/lib/httpd/modules
#cp ../build/jk2/apache2/mod_jk2.so ../build/jk2/apache2/libjkjni.so /usr/lib/httpd/modules/
g.#vi /usr/local/tomcat/bin/catalina.sh
在# Only set CATALINA_HOME if not already set后加上以下两行:
serverRoot=/etc/httpd
export serverRoot
h.#vi /usr/local/tomcat/conf/jk2.properties
serverRoot=/etc/httpd
apr.NativeSo=/usr/lib/httpd/modules/libjkjni.so
apr.jniModeSo=/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_jk2.so
i.#vi /usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.xml,

在前加上以下几行,建了两个VirtualPath:myjsp和local,一个指向share storage,一个指向real server本地

j.#vi /etc/httpd/conf/workers2.properties

#[logger.apache2]
#level=DEBUG
[shm]
file=/var/log/httpd/shm.file
size=1048576
[channel.socket:localhost:8009]
tomcatId=localhost:8009
keepalive=1
info=Ajp13 forwarding over socket
[ajp13:localhost:8009]
channel=channel.socket:localhost:8009
[status:status]
info=Status worker, displays runtime informations
[uri:/*.jsp]
worker=ajp13:localhost:8009
context=/

k.#vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
改:DocumentRoot "/u01/www"
加:
在LoadModule最后加:
LoadModule jk2_module modules/mod_jk2.so
JkSet config.file /etc/httpd/conf/workers2.properties
在#

<%@ page contentType="text/html" %>;
<%@ page import="java.sql.*"%>;
<?xml version="1.0"?>;
<html">;
<head>;
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html" />;
<title>;Test ORACLE Employees</title>;
</head>;
<body>;
<%
String OracleDBDriver="oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver";
String DBUrl="jdbc:oracle:thin:@10.3.1.211:1521:MYID";
String UserID="my";
String UserPWD="1234";

Connection conn=null;

Statement stmt=null;
ResultSet rs=null;
try
{
Class.forName(OracleDBDriver);
}
catch(ClassNotFoundException ex)
{
System.out.println("Class.forname:"+ex);
}
conn=DriverManager.getConnection(DBUrl,UserID,UserPWD);
stmt=conn.createStatement();
String sql="select * from EMPLOYEES";

rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql);

out.print("<table border>;");
out.print("<tr>;");
out.print("<th width=100>;"+"EMPLOYEE_ID");
out.print("<th width=50>;"+"FIRST_NAME");

out.print("<th width=50>;"+"LAST_NAME");
out.print("<th width=50>;"+"EMAIL");
out.print("<th width=50>;"+"PHONE_NUMBER");
out.print("<th width=50>;"+"HIRE_DATE");
out.print("<th width=50>;"+"JOB_ID");

out.print("<tr>;");
try
{
while(rs.next())
{
out.print("<tr>;");
int n=rs.getInt(1);
out.print("<td>;"+n+"</td>;");

String e=rs.getString(2);
out.print("<td>;"+e+"</td>;");
//String e=rs.getString(3);
out.print("<td>;"+rs.getString(3)+"</td>;");
out.print("<td>;"+rs.getString(4)+"</td>;");

out.print("<td>;"+rs.getString(5)+"</td>;");
out.print("<td>;"+rs.getString(6)+"</td>;");
out.print("<td>;"+rs.getString(7)+"</td>;");

out.print("</tr>;");

}
}
catch(SQLException ex)
{
System.err.println("ConnDB.Main:"+ex.getMessage());
}

out.print("</table>;");
rs.close();
stmt.close();
conn.close();
%>;

</body>;
</html>;

p:#vi /u01/www/index.html

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<META HTTP-EQUIV="Refresh" CONTENT="10 URL=http://10.3.1.254/myjsp/testoracle.jsp">
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<a href="http://10.3.1.254/local/index.jsp">;WEB Local</a>
<p>
<a href="http://10.3.1.254/myjsp/testoracle.jsp">;Test Oracle WEB</a>
</BODY>
</HTML>

q:在两台real server上分别
#vi /usr/local/tomcat/conf/tomcat-users.xml
加下面一行,允许页面管理:

anon_root=/u01/ftproot
local_root=/u01/ftproot
setproctitle_enable=YES

#service vsftpd start

现在LVM+GFS+ISCSI+TOMCAT就设置好了,我们可以用Apache Jmeter来测试LVM的性能,两台机子上分别运行jmeter,都指向10.3.1.254/myjsp/testoracle.jsp,各200个 threads同时运行,在Router上用ipvsadm可以监控,Oracle Server的性能可要好,否则大量的http进程会hang在real server上,ipvsadm也会显示有个real server失去了。测试时real server的CPU idle会降到70%,而Router的CPU idle几乎不动。