在双线双IP机房,是在机房的三层交换机上做汇聚实现单网卡双IP的。

一般来说机房会给两个IP,一个电信,一个联通,但只需要配一个网关,通常为电信。

我们在这个环境内装完centos 5.x后,做内核调优,配置了如下参数:

# Enable IP spoofing protection, turn on source route verification
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.conf.lo.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.conf.eth0.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1

应用后,发现联通IP不通了。把上面这些参数改成0后,就通了。

下次要注意,留着备忘。

上一篇博客Citrix NetScaler VPX 导入SSL的方法内讲的导入ssl还有些问题。

在有些firefox版本还是会提示证书有安全问题,经查是由于交叉根证书没有安装造成,如下图:

而正确的应该是:

解决办法:

从SSL颁发机构拿到的中级证书文件内,其实是有两个证书的,如:

—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–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—–END CERTIFICATE—–
—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–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—–END CERTIFICATE—–

前一段是中级证书,后一段是交叉根证书。

中级证书前面已经link过了,把后一段的交叉根证书复制出来,导入到Citrix NetScaler VPX内,再在中级证书上link刚导入的交叉根证书就好了。

再检查,发现显示已经有交叉根证书了。

firefox也正常。

今天將vSphere client 從4.0 升級到v5.0後,發現無法連線到vSphere server.遇到的錯誤訊息如下

vSphere Client could not connect to "xx.xx.xx.xx".
An unknown connection error occurred. (The request failed because the client could not validate the server's SSL certificate. (The underlying connection was closed: Could not establish trust relationship for the SSL/TLS secure channel.))

看起來應該是certificate的問題,我也有用瀏覽器直接連線vSphere server,有看到certificate error的錯誤,也直接選擇安裝,但結果一樣,後來稍微搜尋一下,原來

是憑證需要安裝到  root Trusted certificates 路徑下,所以我就在重新安裝一次,這次就自己選擇import的路進,把certifcate安裝到 root trusted certifcates下,問題

即可解決,詳細的說明,可以參考下面的連結


 

http://blogs.msdn.com/b/jpsanders/archive/2009/09/16/troubleshooting-asp-net-the-remote-certificate-is-invalid-according-to-the-validation-procedure.aspx

公司需招一名SA和一台DBA,请兴趣的请与我联系,把简历发到luoh@shinezone.com

公司网站:www.shinezone.com

工作地点:上海浦东(世纪大道)

待遇:6~12k,看技术可谈。

 

职位职能:  mysql dba :

岗位职责:
1、负责各项目的数据库设计和规划
2、MySQL数据库的日常维护及监控,保证数据库的正常运作
3、查找线上MySQL性能瓶颈,分析和设计改进方案
4、为开发人员提供技术支持,协助优化SQL语句,部署测试环境

任职要求:
1、熟悉MySQL数据库体系结构,了解数据库运行机制
2、熟悉SQL的开发,并能对SQL语句进行分析,优化,具备快速排障能力
3、熟悉Linux系统的基本操作,有shell/perl编程经验
4、二年及以上DBA岗位的从业经验,具备MySQL数据库维护和管理经验
5、责任心强,善于沟通,具有合作精神

职位职能:  系统管理员/网络管理员 
职位描述:
工作职责简述:
1.线上运营服务器的管理和维护;
2.负责公司内部网络及系统的日常管理和维护,处理网络及计算机故障;
3.负责项目运营状况的日常监控。

职位要求:
1、熟悉Linux系统的优化,如性能参数调整、安全优化等。
2、熟练掌握 nginx、squid、openvpn、nagios、cacti、ftp、dns的安装配置和性能优化;
3、熟悉perl,php,python,shell其中至少一种脚本语言;
4、有puppet使用经验,web集群经验优先考虑;
5、有自动化监控的脚本编写经验者优先考虑;
6、有2年以上WEB或数据库服务器维护经验;
7、责任心强,善于沟通,具有合作精神。

有兴趣的请把简历发到luoh@shinezone.com

平台: RHEL5.4

如执行rpm -q 等命令就一直hang在那里不动, ps看一下发现n多的rpmq进程挂住了.

# ps -ef | grep rpmq     

root      1202  1199  0 Aug31 ?        00:00:00 /usr/lib/rpm/rpmq -q –all –qf %{name}-%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}.rpmn
root      1519  1517  0 10:52 pts/2    00:00:00 /usr/lib/rpm/rpmq -q –all –qf %{name}-%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}.rpmn
root      1623  1620  0 Aug22 ?        00:00:00 /usr/lib/rpm/rpmq -q –all –qf %{name}-%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}.rpmn

这些进程是每晚crontab执行/etc/cron.daily/rpm后, 更新本机rpm库到 /var/lib/rpm/__db.* 文件里. 可能曾经 /var 目录磁盘满过, 所以才出现这样情况, 现在要做的如下:

# rm -f /var/lib/rpm/__db.*

然后再执行rpm命令就没有问题了. 最好再重建一下rpm库

# rpm -vv –rebuilddb
# /etc/cron.daily/rpm

refer: http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/red-hat-31/rpm*-hangs-107312/

–End–

%iowait并不能反应磁盘瓶颈

iowait实际测量的是cpu时间:
%iowait = (cpu idle time)/(all cpu time)

这个文章说明:高速cpu会造成很高的iowait值,但这并不代表磁盘是系统的瓶颈。唯一能说明磁盘是系统瓶颈的方法,就是很高的read/write时间,一般来说超过20ms,就代表了不太正常的磁盘性能。为什么是20ms呢?一般来说,一次读写就是一次寻到+一次旋转延迟+数据传输的时间。由于,现代硬盘数据传输就是几微秒或者几十微秒的事情,远远小于寻道时间2~20ms和旋转延迟4~8ms,所以只计算这两个时间就差不多了,也就是15~20ms。只要大于20ms,就必须考虑是否交给磁盘读写的次数太多,导致磁盘性能降低了。

作者的文章以AIX系统为例,使用其工具filemon来检测磁盘每次读写平均耗时。在Linux下,可以通过iostat命令还查看磁盘性能。其中的svctm一项,反应了磁盘的负载情况,如果该项大于15ms,并且util%接近100%,那就说明,磁盘现在是整个系统性能的瓶颈了。

来自:http://blog.morebits.org/?p=125

 

iostat来对linux硬盘IO性能进行了解

转载自:扶凯: http://www.php-oa.com/2009/02/03/iostat.html
以前一直不太会用这个参数。现在认真研究了一下iostat,因为刚好有台重要的服务器压力高,所以放上来分析一下.下面这台就是IO有压力过大的服务器

$iostat -x 1
Linux 2.6.33-fukai (fukai-laptop)          _i686_    (2 CPU)
avg-cpu:  %user   %nice %system %iowait  %steal   %idle
5.47    0.50    8.96   48.26    0.00   36.82

Device:         rrqm/s   wrqm/s     r/s     w/s   rsec/s   wsec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz   await  svctm  %util
sda               6.00   273.00   99.00    7.00  2240.00  2240.00    42.26     1.12   10.57   7.96  84.40
sdb               0.00     4.00    0.00  350.00     0.00  2068.00     5.91     0.55    1.58   0.54  18.80

rrqm/s:      每秒进行 merge 的读操作数目。即 delta(rmerge)/s
wrqm/s:        每秒进行 merge 的写操作数目。即 delta(wmerge)/s
r/s:        每秒完成的读 I/O 设备次数。即 delta(rio)/s
w/s:        每秒完成的写 I/O 设备次数。即 delta(wio)/s
rsec/s:        每秒读扇区数。即 delta(rsect)/s
wsec/s:        每秒写扇区数。即 delta(wsect)/s
rkB/s:        每秒读K字节数。是 rsect/s 的一半,因为每扇区大小为512字节。(需要计算)
wkB/s:        每秒写K字节数。是 wsect/s 的一半。(需要计算)
avgrq-sz:    平均每次设备I/O操作的数据大小 (扇区)。delta(rsect+wsect)/delta(rio+wio)
avgqu-sz:    平均I/O队列长度。即 delta(aveq)/s/1000 (因为aveq的单位为毫秒)。
await:        平均每次设备I/O操作的等待时间 (毫秒)。即 delta(ruse+wuse)/delta(rio+wio)
svctm:        平均每次设备I/O操作的服务时间 (毫秒)。即 delta(use)/delta(rio+wio)
%util:        一秒中有百分之多少的时间用于 I/O 操作,或者说一秒中有多少时间 I/O 队列是非空的。即 delta(use)/s/1000 (因为use的单位为毫秒)

如果 %util 接近 100%,说明产生的I/O请求太多,I/O系统已经满负荷,该磁盘可能存在瓶颈。
idle小于70% IO压力就较大了,一般读取速度有较多的wait。
同时可以结合vmstat 查看查看b参数(等待资源的进程数)和wa参数(IO等待所占用的CPU时间的百分比,高过30%时IO压力高)
另外 await 的参数也要多和 svctm 来参考。差的过高就一定有 IO 的问题。
avgqu-sz 也是个做 IO 调优时需要注意的地方,这个就是直接每次操作的数据的大小,如果次数多,但数据拿的小的话,其实 IO 也会很小.如果数据拿的大,才IO 的数据会高。也可以通过 avgqu-sz × ( r/s or w/s ) = rsec/s or wsec/s.也就是讲,读定速度是这个来决定的。

另外还可以参考
svctm 一般要小于 await (因为同时等待的请求的等待时间被重复计算了),svctm 的大小一般和磁盘性能有关,CPU/内存的负荷也会对其有影响,请求过多也会间接导致 svctm 的增加。await 的大小一般取决于服务时间(svctm) 以及 I/O 队列的长度和 I/O 请求的发出模式。如果 svctm 比较接近 await,说明 I/O 几乎没有等待时间;如果 await 远大于 svctm,说明 I/O 队列太长,应用得到的响应时间变慢,如果响应时间超过了用户可以容许的范围,这时可以考虑更换更快的磁盘,调整内核 elevator 算法,优化应用,或者升级 CPU。
队列长度(avgqu-sz)也可作为衡量系统 I/O 负荷的指标,但由于 avgqu-sz 是按照单位时间的平均值,所以不能反映瞬间的 I/O 洪水。

别人一个不错的例子(I/O 系统 vs. 超市排队)

举一个例子,我们在超市排队 checkout 时,怎么决定该去哪个交款台呢? 首当是看排的队人数,5个人总比20人要快吧? 除了数人头,我们也常常看看前面人购买的东西多少,如果前面有个采购了一星期食品的大妈,那么可以考虑换个队排了。还有就是收银员的速度了,如果碰上了连 钱都点不清楚的新手,那就有的等了。另外,时机也很重要,可能 5 分钟前还人满为患的收款台,现在已是人去楼空,这时候交款可是很爽啊,当然,前提是那过去的 5 分钟里所做的事情比排队要有意义 (不过我还没发现什么事情比排队还无聊的)。

I/O 系统也和超市排队有很多类似之处:

r/s+w/s 类似于交款人的总数
平均队列长度(avgqu-sz)类似于单位时间里平均排队人的个数
平均服务时间(svctm)类似于收银员的收款速度
平均等待时间(await)类似于平均每人的等待时间
平均I/O数据(avgrq-sz)类似于平均每人所买的东西多少
I/O 操作率 (%util)类似于收款台前有人排队的时间比例。

我们可以根据这些数据分析出 I/O 请求的模式,以及 I/O 的速度和响应时间。

下面是别人写的这个参数输出的分析

# iostat -x 1
avg-cpu: %user %nice %sys %idle
16.24 0.00 4.31 79.44
Device: rrqm/s wrqm/s r/s w/s rsec/s wsec/s rkB/s wkB/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util
/dev/cciss/c0d0
0.00 44.90 1.02 27.55 8.16 579.59 4.08 289.80 20.57 22.35 78.21 5.00 14.29

上面的 iostat 输出表明秒有 28.57 次设备 I/O 操作: 总IO(io)/s = r/s(读) +w/s(写) = 1.02+27.55 = 28.57 (次/秒) 其中写操作占了主体 (w:r = 27:1)。

平均每次设备 I/O 操作只需要 5ms 就可以完成,但每个 I/O 请求却需要等上 78ms,为什么? 因为发出的 I/O 请求太多 (每秒钟约 29 个),假设这些请求是同时发出的,那么平均等待时间可以这样计算:

平均等待时间 = 单个 I/O 服务时间 * ( 1 + 2 + … + 请求总数-1) / 请求总数

应用到上面的例子: 平均等待时间 = 5ms * (1+2+…+28)/29 = 70ms,和 iostat 给出的78ms 的平均等待时间很接近。这反过来表明 I/O 是同时发起的。

每秒发出的 I/O 请求很多 (约 29 个),平均队列却不长 (只有 2 个 左右),这表明这 29 个请求的到来并不均匀,大部分时间 I/O 是空闲的。

一秒中有 14.29% 的时间 I/O 队列中是有请求的,也就是说,85.71% 的时间里 I/O 系统无事可做,所有 29 个 I/O 请求都在142毫秒之内处理掉了。

delta(ruse+wuse)/delta(io) = await = 78.21 => delta(ruse+wuse)/s =78.21 * delta(io)/s = 78.21*28.57 = 2232.8,表明每秒内的I/O请求总共需要等待2232.8ms。所以平均队列长度应为 2232.8ms/1000ms = 2.23,而 iostat 给出的平均队列长度 (avgqu-sz) 却为 22.35,为什么?! 因为 iostat 中有 bug,avgqu-sz 值应为 2.23,而不是 22.35。

 

网络浏览:推荐使用 Elinks,Elinks 对于框架、表格以及鼠标的支持都很不错。当然,你也可以将LynxLinksw3m、htmlview 作为备选。

邮件收发:Mutt + Fetchmail + msmtp 是很好的组合。其中,Mutt 用于邮件的管理,Fetchmail 用来收取邮件,而 msmtp 则用来发送邮件。

联络聊天:CenterICQ 支持 MSN、Jabber、IRC、Yahoo!、AIM、ICQ 等多种即时通讯协议。它同时也具有一个 UTF-8 版本。其他的工具包括 Freetalk(Gtalk 用户适用)、Naim(支持 AIM、ICQ、IRC 等)、Irssi(IRC 用户适用) 等。

新闻阅读:现在通过 RSS 及时获取信息是一种比较流行的方式。你可以使用 Raggle 来满足每天阅读新闻的需求。Raggle 使用 Ruby 所写,它支持各种版本的 RSS、能够导入/导出 OPML、可定制绑定的快捷键。遗憾的是,Raggle 目前不支持中文。Snownews 虽然功能要弱点,但是对于中文支持很好。

文件管理:Midnight Commander(简称 mc)是一个值得使用的文件管理工具。

查看图片:你可以试试 zgv,我也在使用 feh

听歌观影:如果你需要听歌,MOC 绝对值得一用。另外,你也可以试试 cplay。看电影的话,当然是MPlayer 了。文本编辑:既然已经有了 VIMEmacs,那么我们还奢求什么呢?

下载上传:主力下载工具使用 wget,要加速可以使用 axel。至于上传 ftp,lftp、nftp 都是不错的选择。此外,对付 BitTorrent 的话,则可以使用 rTorrent

窗口管理:TwinScreen,tmux, tmux 很强大。

1. Typical of the grassland dwellers of the continent is the American antelope, or pronghorn. 美洲羚羊,或称叉角羚,是该大陆典型的草原动物。

  2. Of the millions who saw Haley’s comet in 1986, how many people will live long enough to see it return in the twenty-first century. 1986年看见哈雷慧星的千百万人当中,有多少人能够长寿到足以目睹它在二十一世纪的回归呢?

  3. Anthropologists have discovered that fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise are universally reflected in facial expressions.人类学家们已经发现,恐惧,快乐,悲伤和惊奇都会行之于色,这在全人类是共通的。

  4. Because of its irritating effect on humans, the use of phenol as a general antiseptic has been largely discontinued. 由于苯酚对人体带有刺激性作用,它基本上已不再被当作常用的防腐剂了。

  5. In group to remain in existence, a profit-making organization must, in the long run, produce something consumers consider useful or desirable.任何盈利组织若要生存,最终都必须生产出消费者可用或需要的产品。

  6. The greater the population there is in a locality, the greater the need there is for water, transportation, and disposal of refuse. 一个地方的人口越多,其对水,交通和垃圾处理的需求就会越大。

  7. It is more difficult to write simply, directly, and effectively than to employ flowery but vague expressions that only obscure one’s meaning. 简明,直接,有力的写作难于花哨,含混而意义模糊的表达。

  8. With modern offices becoming more mechanized, designers are attempting to personalize them with warmer, less severe interiors. 随着现代办公室的日益自动化,设计师们正试图利用较为温暖而不太严肃的内部装饰来使其具有亲切感。

  9. The difference between libel and slander is that libel is printed while slander is spoken. 诽谤和流言的区别在于前者是书面的,而后者是口头的。

  10. The knee is the joints where the thigh bone meets the large bone of the lower leg. 膝盖是大腿骨和小腿胫的连接处。

  11. Acids are chemical compounds that, in water solution, have a sharp taste, a corrosive action on metals, and the ability to turn certain blue vegetable dyes red. 酸是一种化合物,它在溶于水时具有强烈的气味和对金属的腐蚀性,并且能够使某些蓝色植物染料变红。

  12. Billie Holiday’s reputation as a great jazz-blues singer rests on her ability to give emotional depth to her songs. Billie Holiday’s作为一个爵士布鲁斯乐杰出歌手的名声建立在能够赋予歌曲感情深度的能力。

  13. Essentially, a theory is an abstract, symbolic representation of what is conceived to be reality. 理论在本质上是对认识了的现实的一种抽象和符号化的表达。

14. Long before children are able to speak or understand a language, they communicate through facial expressions and by making noises. 儿童在能说或能听懂语言之前,很久就会通过面部表情和靠发出噪声来与人交流了。

  15. Thanks to modern irrigation, crops now grow abundantly in areas where once nothing but cacti and sagebrush could live. 受当代灌溉(技术设施)之赐,农作物在原来只有仙人掌和荞属科植物才能生存的地方旺盛的生长。

  16. The development of mechanical timepieces spurred the search for more accurate sundials with which to regulate them. 机械计时器的发展促使人们寻求更精确的日晷,以便校准机械计时器。

  17. Anthropology is a science in that anthropologists use a rigorous set of methods and techniques to document observations that can be checked by others. 人类学是一门科学,因为人类学家采用一整套强有力的方法和技术来记录观测结果,而这样记录下来的观测结果是供他人核查的。

  18. Fungi are important in the process of decay, which returns ingredients to the soil, enhances soil fertility, and decomposes animal debris. 真菌在腐化过程中十分重要,而腐化过程将化学物质回馈于土壤,提高其肥力,并分解动物粪便。

  19. When it is struck, a tuning fork produces an almost pure tone, retaining its pitch over a long period of time. 音叉被敲击时,产生几乎纯质的音调,其音量经久不衰。

  20. Although pecans are most plentiful in the southeastern part of the United States, they are found as far north as Ohio and Illinois. 虽然美洲山河桃树最集中于美国的东南部但是在北至俄亥俄州及伊利诺州也能看见它们。

  21. Eliminating problems by transferring the blame to others is often called scape-goating. 用怪罪别人的办法来解决问题通常被称为寻找替罪羊。

  22. The chief foods eaten in any country depend largely on what grows best in its climate and soil. 一个国家的主要食物是什么,大体取决于什么作物在其天气和土壤条件下生长得最好。

  23. Over a very large number of trials, the probability of an event’s occurring is equal to the probability that it will not occur. 在大量的实验中,某一事件发生的几率等于它不发生的几率。

  24. Most substance contract when they freeze so that the density of a substance’s solid is higher than the density of its liquid. 大多数物质遇冷收缩,所以他们的密度在固态时高于液态。

  25. The mechanism by which brain cells store memories is not clearly understood. 大脑细胞储存记忆的机理并不为人明白。

  26. By the middle of the twentieth century, painters and sculptors in the United States had begun to exert a great worldwide influence over art. 到了二十一世纪中叶,美国画家和雕塑家开始在世界范围内对艺术产生重大影响。

  27. In the eastern part of New Jersey lies the city of Elizabeth, a major shipping and manufacturing center. 伊丽莎白市,一个重要的航运和制造业中心,坐落于新泽西州的东部。

  28. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman medical doctor in the United States, founded the New York Infirmary, an institution that has always had a completely female medical staff.  Elizabeth Blackwell,美国第一个女医生,创建了员工一直为女性纽约诊所。

  29. Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf than as the inventor of the telephone. Alexander Graham Bell曾告诉家人,他更愿意让后人记住他是聋子的老师,而非电话的发明者。

  30. Because its leaves remain green long after being picked, rosemary became associated with the idea of remembrance. 采摘下的迷迭香树叶常绿不衰,因此人们把迷迭香树与怀念联系在一起。
31. Although apparently rigid, bones exhibit a degree of elasticity that enables the skeleton to withstand considerable impact. 骨头看起来是脆硬的,但它也有一定的弹性,使得骨骼能够承受相当的打击。

  32. That xenon could not FORM chemical compounds was once believed by scientists. 科学家曾相信:氙气是不能形成化合物的。

  33. Research into the dynamics of storms is directed toward improving the ability to predict these events and thus to minimize damage and avoid loss of life. 对风暴动力学的研究是为了提高风暴预测从而减少损失,避免人员伤亡。

  34. The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would have the same value as the amount of money borrowed. 消除通货膨胀应确保还贷的钱应与所贷款的价值相同。

  35. Futurism, an early twentieth-century movement in art, rejected all traditions and attempted to glorify contemporary life by emphasizing the machine and motion. 未来主义,二十世纪早期的一个艺术思潮。拒绝一切传统,试图通过强调机械和动态来美化生活。

  36. One of the wildest and most inaccessible parts of the United States is the Everglades where wildlife is abundant and largely protected.  Everglades是美国境内最为荒凉和人迹罕至的地区之一,此处有大量的野生动植物而且大多受(法律)保护。

  37. Lucretia Mott’s influence was so significant that she has been credited by some authorities as the originator of feminism in the United States. Lucretia Mott’s的影响巨大,所以一些权威部门认定她为美国女权运动的创始人。

  38. The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than those of the domestic marketer. 国际市场研究者的活动范围常常较国内市场研究者广阔。

  39. The continental divide refers to an imaginary line in the North American Rockies that divides the waters flowing into the Atlantic Ocean from those flowing into the Pacific. 大陆分水岭是指北美洛矶山脉上的一道想象线,该线把大西洋流域和太平洋流域区分开来。

  40. Studies of the gravity field of the Earth indicate that its crust and mantle yield when unusual weight is placed on them. 对地球引力的研究表明,在不寻常的负荷之下地壳和地幔会发生位移。

  41. The annual worth of Utah’s manufacturing is greater than that of its mining and farming combined. 尤它州制造业的年产值大于其工业和农业的总和。

  42. The wallflower is so called because its weak stems often grow on walls and along stony cliffs for support. 墙花之所以叫墙花,是因为其脆弱的枝干经常要靠墙壁或顺石崖生长,以便有所依附。

  43. It is the interaction between people, rather than the events that occur in their lives, that is the main focus of social psychology. 社会心理学的主要焦点是人与人之间的交往,而不是他们各自生活中的事件。

  44. No social crusade aroused Elizabeth Williams’ enthusiasm more than the expansion of educational facilities for immigrants to the United States. 给美国的新移民增加教育设施比任何社会运动都更多的激发了Elizabeth Williams的热情。

  45. Quails typically have short rounded wings that enable them to spring into full flight instantly when disturbed in their hiding places. 典型的鹌鹑都长有短而圆的翅膀,凭此他们可以在受惊时一跃而起,飞离它们的躲藏地。

  46. According to anthropologists, the earliest ancestors of humans that stood upright resembled chimpanzees facially, with sloping foreheads and protruding brows. 根据人类学家的说法,直立行走的人的鼻祖面部轮廓与黑猩猩相似,额头后倾,眉毛突出。

  47. Not until 1866 was the fully successful transatlantic cable finally laid. 直到1866年第一条横跨大西洋的电缆才完全成功的架通。

  48. In his writing, John Crowe Ransom describes what he considers the spiritual barrenness of society brought about by science and technology. John Crowe Ransom在他的著作中描述了他认为是由科学技术给社会带来的精神贫困。

  49. Children with parents whose guidance is firm, consistent, and rational are inclined to possess high levels of self-confidence. 父母的教导如果坚定,始终如一和理性,孩子就有可能充满自信。

  50. The ancient Hopewell people of North America probably cultivated corn and other crops, but hunting and gathering were still of critical importance in their economy. 北美远古的Hopewell人很可能种植了玉米和其他农作物,但打猎和采集对他们的经济贸易仍是至关重要的。
      51. Using many symbols makes it possible to put a large amount of information on a single map. 使用多种多样的符号可以在一张地图里放进大量的信息。

  52. Anarchism is a term describing a cluster of doctrines and attitudes whose principal uniting feature is the belief that government is both harmful and unnecessary. 无政府主义这个词描述的是一堆理论和态度,它们的主要共同点在于相信政府是有害的,没有必要的。

  53. Probably no man had more effect on the daily lives of most people in the Untied States than did Henry Ford a pioneer in automobile production. 恐怕没有谁对大多数美国人的日常生活影响能超过汽车生产的先驱亨利.福特。

  54. The use of well-chosen nonsense words makes possible the testing of many basic hypotheses in the field of language learning. 使用精心挑选的无意义词汇,可以检验语言学科里许多基本的假定。

  55. The history of painting is a fascinating chain of events that probably began with the very first pictures ever made. 优化历史是由一连串的迷人事件组成,其源头大概可以上溯到最早的图画。

  56. Perfectly matched pearls, strung into a necklace, bring a far higher price than the same pearls told individually. 相互般配的珍珠,串成一条项链,就能卖到比单独售出好得多的价钱。

  57. During the eighteenth century, Little Turtle was chief of the Miami tribe whose territory became what is now Indiana and Ohio. 十八世纪时,“小乌龟”是迈阿密部落的酋长,该部落的地盘就是今天的印第安那州和俄亥俄州。

  58. Among almost seven hundred species of bamboo, some are fully grown at less than a foot high, while others can grow three feet in twenty-four hours. 在竹子的近七百个品种中,有的全长成还不到一英尺,有的却能在二十四小时内长出三英尺。

  59. Before staring on a sea voyage, prudent navigators learn the sea charts, study the sailing directions, and memorize lighthouse locations to prepare themselves for any conditions they might encounter. 谨慎的航海员在出航前,会研究航向,记录的灯塔的位置,以便对各种可能出现的情况做到有备无患。

  60. Of all the economically important plants, palms have been the least studied. 在所有的经济作物中,棕榈树得到的研究最少。
61. Buyers and sellers should be aware of new developments in technology can and does affect marketing activities. 购买者和销售者都应该留意技术的新发展,原因很简单,因为技术能够并且已经影响着营销活动。

  62. The application of electronic controls made possible by the microprocessor and computer storage have multiplied the uses of the modern typewriter. 电脑储存和由于电子微处理机得以实现的电控运用成倍的增加了现代打字机的功能。

  63. The human skeleton consists of more than two hundred bones bound together by tough and relatively inelastic connective tissues called ligaments. 人类骨骼有二百多块骨头组成,住些骨头石油坚韧而相对缺乏弹性的,被称为韧带的结蒂组连在一起。

  64. The pigmentation of a pearl is influenced by the type of oyster in which it develops and by the depth, temperature, and the salt content of the water in which the oyster lives. 珍珠的色泽受到作为其母体牡蛎种类及牡蛎生活水域的深度,温度和含盐度的制约。

  65. Although mockingbirds superbly mimic the songs and calls of many birds, they can nonetheless be quickly identified as mockingbirds by certain aural clues. 尽管模仿鸟学很多种鸟的鸣叫声惟妙惟肖,但人类还是能够依其声音上的线索很快识别它们。

  66. Not only can walking fish live out of water, but they can also travel short distances over land. 鲇鱼不仅可以离开水存活,还可以在岸上短距离移动。

  67. Scientists do not know why dinosaurs became extinct, but some theories postulate that changers in geography, climate, and sea levels were responsible. 科学家不知道恐龙为何绝种了,但是一些理论推断是地理,气候和海平面的变化造成的。

  68. The science of horticulture, in which the primary concerns are maximum yield and superior quality, utilizes information derived from other sciences. 主要目的在于丰富和优质的农艺学利用了其他科学的知识。

  69. Snow aids farmers by keeping heart in the lower ground levels, thereby saving the seeds from freezing. 雪对农民是一种帮助,因为它保持地层土壤的温度,使种子不致冻死。

  70. Even though the precise qualities of hero in literary words may vary over time, the basic exemplary function of the hero seems to remain constant. 当代文学作品中的英雄本色虽各有千秋,但其昭世功力却是恒古不变的。

  71. People in prehistoric times created paints by grinding materials such as plants and clay into power and then adding water. 史前的人们制造颜料是将植物和泥土等原料磨成粉末,然后加水。

  72. Often very annoying weeds, goldenrods crowd out less hardy plants and act as hosts to many insect pests. 黄菊花通常令人生厌,它挤走不那么顽强的植物,并找来很多害虫。

  73. Starting around 7000 B.C., and for the next four thousand years, much of the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than at present. 大约从公元前七千年开始,在四千年当中,北半球的温度比现在高。

  74. When Henry Ford first sought financial backing for making cars, the very notion of farmers and clerks owning automobiles was considered ridiculous. 当亨利.福特最初制造汽车为寻求资金支持时,农民和一般职员也能拥有汽车的想法被认为是可笑的。

  75. Though once quite large, the population of the bald eagle across North America has drastically declined in the past forty years. 北美秃头鹰的数量一度很多,但在近四十年中全北美的秃头鹰数量急剧下降。

  76. The beaver chews down trees to get food and material with which to build its home. 水獭啃倒树木,以便取食物并获得造窝的材料。

  77. Poodles were once used as retrievers in duck hunting, but the American Kennel Club does not consider them sporting dogs because they are now primarily kept as pets. 长卷毛狗曾被用作猎鸭时叼回猎物的猎犬,但是美国Kennel Club却不承认它们为猎犬,因为它们现在大多数作为宠物饲养。

  78. As a result of what is now know in physics and chemistry, scientists have been able to make important discoveries in biology and medicine. 物理学和化学的一个成果是使得科学家们能在生物学和医学上获得重大发现。

  79. The practice of making excellent films based on rather obscure novels has been going on so long in the United States as to constitute a tradition. 根据默默无闻的小说制作优秀影片在美国由来已久,已经成为传统。

  80. Since the consumer considers the best fruit to be that which is the most attractive, the grower must provide products that satisfy the discerning eye. 因为顾客认为最好的水果应该看起来也是最漂亮的,所以种植者必须提供能满足挑剔眼光的产品。

  81. Television the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth, is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. 电视,这项从迅速变化和成长为标志的最普及和最有影响力的现代技术,正在步入一个新时代,一个极为成熟和多样化的时代,这将重塑我们的生活和世界。

  82. Television is more than just an electronics; it is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings. 电视不仅仅是一件电器;它是表达的手段和交流的载体并因此成为联系他人的有力工具。

  83. Even more shocking is the fact that the number and rate of imprisonment have more than doubled over the past twenty years, and recidivism——that is the rate for re-arrest——is more than 60 percent. 更让人吃惊的事实是监禁的数目和比例在过去的二十年中翻了一番还有余,以及累犯率——即再次拘押的比例——为百分之六十强。

  84. His teaching began at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but William Rainey Harper lured him to the new university of Chicago, where he remained officially for exactly a generation and where his students in advanced composition found him terrifyingly frigid in the classroom but sympathetic and understanding in their personal conferences. 他的教书生涯始于麻省理工学院,但是William Rainey Harper把他吸引到了新成立的芝加哥大学。他在那里正式任职长达整整一代人的时间。他的高级作文课上的学生觉得他在课上古板得可怕,但私下交流却富有同情和理解。

  85. The sloth pays such little attention to its personal hygiene that green algae grow on its coarse hair and communities of a parasitic moth live in the depths of its coat producing caterpillars which graze on its mouldy hair. Its muscles are such that it is quits incapable of moving at a speed of over a kilometer an hour even over the shortest distances and the swiftest movement it can make is a sweep of its hooked arm. 树獭即不讲究卫生,以至于它粗糙的毛发上生出绿苔,成群的寄生蛾生长在它的皮毛深处,变成毛毛虫,并以它的脏毛为食。她的肌肉不能让他哪怕在很短的距离以内以每小时一公里的速度移动。它能做的最敏捷的动作就是挥一挥它弯曲的胳膊。

  86. Artificial flowers are used for scientific as well as for decorative purposes. They are made from a variety of materials, such as way and glass, so skillfully that they can scarcely be distinguished from natural flowers. 人造花卉即可用于科学目的,也可用于装饰目的,它们可以用各种各样的材料制成,臂如蜡和玻璃;其制作如此精巧,几乎可以以假乱真。

  87. Three years of research at an abandoned coal mine in Argonne, Illinois, have resulted in findings that scientists believe can help reclaim thousands of mine disposal sites that scar the coal-rich regions of the United States. 在伊利诺州Angonne市的一个废弃煤矿的三年研究取得了成果,科学家们相信这些成果可以帮助改造把美国产煤区弄得伤痕累累的数千个旧煤场。

  88. When the persuading and the planning for the western railroads had finally been completed, the really challenging task remained: the dangerous, sweaty, backbreaking, brawling business of actually building the lines. 当有关西部铁路的说服和规划工作终于完成后,真正艰难的任务还没有开始;即危险,吃力,需要伤筋动骨和吵吵嚷嚷的建造这些铁路的实际工作。

  89. Because of the space crunch, the Art Museum has become increasingly cautious in considering acquisitions and donations of art, in some cases passing up opportunities to strengthen is collections. 由于空间不足,艺术博物馆在考虑购买和接受捐赠的艺术品是越来越慎重,有些情况下放弃其进一步改善收藏的机会。

90. The United States Constitution requires that President be a natural-born citizen, thirty-five years of age or older, who has lived in the United States for a minimum of fourteen years. 美国宪法要求总统是生于美国本土的公民,三十五岁以上,并且在美国居住了至少十四年。

      91. Arid regions in the southwestern United States have become increasingly inviting playgrounds for the growing number of recreation seekers who own vehicles such as motorcycles or powered trail bikes and indulge in hill-climbing contests or in caving new trails in the desert. 美国西部的不毛之地正成为玩耍的地方,对越来越多拥有摩托车或越野单车类车辆的,喜欢放纵于爬坡比赛或开辟新的沙漠通道的寻欢作乐者具有不断增长的吸引力。

  92. Stone does decay, and so tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the man who made them have disappeared without trace. 石头不会腐烂,所以以前的(石器)工具能保存下来,虽然它们的制造者已经消失的无影无踪。

  93. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals. 昆虫就将会使我们无法在这个世界上居住;如果我们没有受到以昆虫为食的动物的保护,昆虫就会吞嚼掉我们所有的庄稼并杀死我们饲养的禽兽。

  94. It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement. 确实,他们在探险中遇到了极具威胁性的困难和危险,而他们的装备会让一个现代登山者想一想都会浑身颤栗。不过他们并不是刻意去追求刺激的。

  95. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is. 老人和年轻人之间只有一个区别:年轻人的前面有辉煌的未来,老年人灿烂的未来却已在它们身后。这也许就是困难之所在。

  96. I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things. 我们位年强人振奋。它们带有自由的气息,他们不会为狭隘的野心和贪婪享受而孜孜以求。他们不是焦虑的向上爬的人,他们不会对物质性的东西难舍难分。

  97. I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. 每次我听说体育运动能够在国家间建立起友好感情,说世界各地的普通人只要能在足球场或板球场上相遇就会没有兴趣在战场上相遇的话,我都倍感诧异。

  98. It is impossible to say simply for the fun and exercise: as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are around. 没有可能仅仅为了娱乐或锻炼而运动:一旦有了问题,一旦你觉得你输了你和你所属团体会有失体面时,你最野蛮的好斗本能就会被激发出来。

  99. It has been found that certain bats emit squeaks and by receiving the echoes, they can locate and steer clear of obstacles——or locate flying insects on which they feed. This echo-location in bats is often compared with radar, the principle of which is similar. 人们已经发现,某些蝙蝠发出尖叫声并靠接受回响来锁定和避免障碍物——或者找到它们赖以为生的昆虫。蝙蝠这种回响定位法常拿来和原理与之很相近似的雷达相比。

  100. As the time and cost of making a clip drop to a few days and a few hundred dollars, engineers may soon be free to let their imaginations soar without being penalized by expensive failure. 随着芯片制造时间和费用降低到了几天和几百美元,工程师们可能很快可以任他们的想象驰骋而不会被昂贵的失败所惩罚。

转自: http://17wi.com/doc-view-342.html

cobbler
自动化的linux网络安装管理工具
Red Hat 最新发布了网络安装服务器套件 Cobbler(补鞋匠),它已将 Linux 网络安装的技术门槛,从大专以上文化水平,成功降低到初中以下,连补鞋匠都能学会。

目录
• 一.CentOS4安装步骤
• 二.Fedora 9安装步骤
一.CentOS4安装步骤编辑本段回目录
1、安装相关的yum repository

rpm -Uhv http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el4/en/i386/rpmforge/RPMS/rpmforge-release-0.3.6-1.el4.rf.i386.rpm

rpm -Uvh http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/epel/4/i386/epel-release-4-9.noarch.rpm

2、升级syslinux

yum -y update syslinux

#CentOS4默认的syslinux版本太低,不支持相关的语法,CentOS5和Fedora不需要升级

3、安装Cobbler及相关软件

yum -y install cobbler koan tftp-server dhcp httpd yum-utils

4、检查cobbler配置

cobbler check

#按提示解决相关问题。把/ect/cobbler/settings中的server和next_server设为本服务器ip,manage_dhcp设为1,通过cobbler管理dhcp配置

5、导入安装文件

mount -o loop CentOS-4.6-i386-binDVD.iso /mnt

cobbler import –mirror=/mnt –name=CentOS-4-i386 –kickstart=/etc/cobbler/sample.ks

cobbler distro list

#查看导入结果,应显示CentOS-4-i386和CentOS-4-xen-i386

6、修改dhcp和kickstart模板

vi /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template

vi /etc/cobbler/sample.ks

7、生成并同步所有配置

cobbler sync

8、启动相关服务

chkconfig tftp on

service xinetd start

service dhcp start

service httpd start

service cobblerd start

至此cobbler服务端配置完成,启动一台新的服务器,PXE进入cobbler蓝色安装界面,选择CentOS-4-i386安装项,剩下的事自动搞定,几分钟系统就装好了。

用cisco交换机的同学,记得打开端口的spanning-tree portfast。

有同学问了,上面装koan是做啥的?

koan是客户端用来通过cobbler安装虚拟环境或重装系统的,比如你想对一台已经安装系统的服务器进行重装操作,只要在客户端服务器上安装koan,然后执行

koan –server=cobbler-server –profile=CentOS-4-i386 –replace-self

reboot后就会自动重装操作系统了。

cobbler还有很多强大的功能,比如对某个MAC地址,指定安装使用的profile等。

cobbler,装机民工的大杀器,一片顶过去五片!

二.Fedora 9安装步骤编辑本段回目录
1. 安装相关软件:
yum -y install cobbler tftp-server dhcp httpd xinetd # 注意 /var/www/cobbler 目录必须具有足够容纳 Linux 安装文件的空间(移动,建软链接)

2. 检查 cobbler 配置:
cobbler check # 按提示解决相关问题,把 /etc/cobbler/settings 中的 server 和 next_server 设为本服务器的 IP 地址,manage_dhcp 设为 1,以便管理 DHCP

3. 导入 Fedora 9 安装 DVD ISO 中的文件:
mount -o loop Fedora9/x86_64/Fedora-9-x86_64-DVD.iso /mnt/dvd/ # 将ISO文件挂载到 /mnt/dvd 目录
cobbler import –mirror=/mnt/dvd –name=FC9-x86-64 # 从 /mnt/dvd 目录导入所有安装文件,命名为 FC9-x86-64
cobbler distro list # 查看导入结果,应显示 FC9-64-i386 和 FC9-64-xen-i386

4. 修改 DHCP 和 Kickstart 配置模板:
vi /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template # DHCP 配置模板,如果已经有一个 dhcpd.conf,可参照修改此模板
vi /etc/cobbler/sample.ks # Kickstart 配置模板

5. 生成并同步所有配置:
cobbler sync

6. 启动相关服务:
service xinetd start # /etc/xinetd.d/tftp 中 disable = no
service dhcpd start
service cobblerd start

曹植七步成诗,而 Cobbler 居然只需要六步。启动另一台新服务器,通过 PXE 启动进入蓝色的 Cobbler 安装界面,选择 Fedora 9 安装项,几分钟之内就能一气呵成,自动完成系统安装。

以上文档来自网络.请大家验证.